Quote of the lecture: " corporate successes depends on the willingness to innovate & make change." 

  

LECTURE OUTLINE: Change  

 

What is Change? - p. 420

Forces For Change - p. 421

External Forces - p. 421

Internal Forces - p. 421

The Manager As Change Agent - p. 422

Two Different Views on the Change Process - p. 422

The "Calm Waters" Metaphor - p. 422

The "White-Water Rapids" Metaphor - p. 424

Putting the Two Views in Perspective - p. 425

Organizational Inertia & Resistance to Change - p. 425

Resistance to Change - p. 425

Techniques for Reducing Resistance - p. 426

Techniques for Managing Change - p. 428

Changing Structure - p. 4428

Changing Technology - p. 429

Changing People - p. 430

Contemporary Issues in Managing Change - p. 431

Changing Organizational Culture - p. 432

Understanding the Situational Factors - p. 432

How Can Cultural Change Be Accomplished? - p. 432

Implementing TQM - p. 435

Focusing the Change Effort - p. 435

Role of the Change Agent - p. 436

Re-engineering - p. 437


2. WHAT IS CHANGE? (p. 420)    



3. FORCES FOR CHANGE. (pp. 421-422) 

A. External forces: 
    1. The marketplace.
    2. Government laws & regulations.
    3. Technology.
    4. Labor markets.
    5. Economic changes.
B. Internal forces:
    1. Changes in strategy.
    2. Changes in the workforce.
    3. New equipment.
    4. Changes in employee attitudes.
  1. The manager as change agent:




4. TWO DIFFERENT VIEWS ON THE CHANGE PROCESS. (pp. 422-425)
  1. The "calm waters" metaphor:
  1. Unfreezing the equilibrium by:
  1. Driving forces:
  1. Restraining forces:
  1. The 2 ways can be combined.
2. Implement the change itself. 

3. Refreeze the situation. 

  
  1. The "white-water rapids" metaphor:
  



5. ORGANIZATIONAL INERTIA & RESISTANCE TO CHANGE. (pp. 425-428) 

A. Resistance to change: 
  1. Uncertainty.
  2. Concern over personal loss.
  3. Belief that the change is not in the organization's best interests.
B. Techniques for reducing resistance:. 
    1. Education & communication: -ve: time & effort.
    2. Participation: +ve Ý acceptance, commitment; -ve: time & poor decision.
    3. Facilitation & support: e.g. counseling & training; -ve: time consuming.
    4. Negotiation: esp. resistance from powerful sources.
    5. Manipulation & Cooptation:
6. Coercion: +ve & -ve same as M & C. 
 



6. THREE TECHNIQUES FOR MANAGING CHANGE. (pp. 428-431) 
 
A. Changing structure: 
    1. Managers can change ³ one of the structural components:
    1. Change the actual structural design: e.g. from Function to matrix.
B. Changing technology via: 
    1. Introducing new equipment tools or operating methods.
    2. Introducing automation.
3. Expanding computerization.    
C. Changing people: 
    1. Ogranization development (OD):
    1. Sensitivity training:
    1. Survey feedback:
    1. Process consultation:
    1. Team building:
    1. Intergroup development:
  

7. CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MANAGING CHANGE. (pp. 431-444) 

A. Changing organizational cultures: 
  1. Understanding situational factors can help facilitate cultural change:
a. A dramatic crisis occurs. 

b. Leadership changes hands. 

c. The firm is young & small. 

d. The culture is weak. 
2. Cultural change be accomplished by:  a. Conduct a cultural analysis: identify the gap via culture element. 

b. Make the crisis visible: change or die . 

c. Appoint new leadership with a new vision. 

d. Initiate a reorganization: the change at Nokia. 

e. Introduce new stories & rituals that convey the new vision. 

f. Change the selection & socialization processes. 
B. Implementing TQM effectively:  1. Focusing the change effort. 

a. Structure; b. Technology; c. People 
    1. Role of the change agent:
  
Factors Facilitates Continuous Incremental Improvements
Structure
Technology
People
Change Agent
  • Decentralization 
  • Reduced vertical 
  • Differentiation 
  • Reduced division of labor 
  • Wider spans of control 
  • Cross-functional teams
  • Flexible processes 
  • Education & training of workers
  • Education & training 
  • Supportive performance evaluation & reward system
  • Active leadership from the top
  

C. Re-engineering: 
    1. Today's dynamic "white-water rapids" world demands a new kind of change agent one who can throw out conventional wisdom & initiate radical change.
    2. Turbulent times demand revolutionary, not orderly change.
    3. It is not a replacement for any other organizational change efforts. Instead, it's probably the first step in changing.
    4. Re-engineering ¹ TQM: