Suggested Guideline for Revision Questions

Ch3. Milieu:

R5. Describe an effective culture for (a) a relatively stable milieu & (b) a dynamic environment.

Utilizing the ten characteristics of organizational culture, an organization in a dynamic milieu versus a relatively stable milieu potentially would have:  


R6. How can pressure groups constrain managerial discretion?

SIGs can attempt to influence an organization's actions in areas such as: Changing societal & political values can influence the power of pressure groups & how willing they are to get involved in influencing an organization's actions.



R9. Why do managers try to minimize environmental uncertainty?

Managers try to minimize environmental uncertainty because:  


R10. What effect, if any, does the general milieu have on managerial practice?

The general environment's effect on managerial practice is low & tends to be subtle.  



R 3. Contrast social responsibility & social responsiveness. Which is more theoretical? Why?  

D5. Discuss this statement: "In the long run, those who do not use power in a way that society considers responsible will tend to lose it."  


R1. What, if any, are the differences between problem solving & decision making?

Many decisions are made in order to solve problems, but decisions don't always have to revolve around problem solution.


R5. Why would an organization's senior executives favor developing a wide range of programmed decisions for middle- & lower-level managers?

Problems at the middle & lower levels tend to be more structured.  

D2. How might an organization's culture influence the way in which managers make decisions?  



R3. Compare an organization's mission with its objectives.  

R4. What relevance does an organization's culture have to its strategy?


Strong & weak cultures have different effects on strategy & the content of a culture has a major effect on the content of the strategy.  

R5. Does an organization have to pursue a growth strategy to be healthy & prosperous? Why or why not? R8. Contrast the BCG matrix & the grand strategies framework. Which do you think is more useful? Why? R9. What are the forces that dictate the rules of competition within an industry?

Michael Porter developed the five forces model of industry competition, viz.,  

D3. Perform a SWOT analysis on a local business you feel you know well. Do your conclusions match the strategies that business follows?  



R5. What behavioral predictions might you make if you knew that an employee had (a) an external locus of control? (b) a low Mach score? (c) low self-esteem? (d) high self-monitoring tendencies?
  1. Employees with an external locus of control might be less satisfied with their jobs, more alienated from the work setting, & less involved in their jobs.
  2. Employees with a low Mach score would be overly idealistic, emotional, & concerned about fair & equitable treatment.
  3. Employees with low self-esteem would be more susceptible to external influence.
  4. Employees with high self-monitoring tendencies would tend to be more adaptable in adjusting their behavior to the demands of different situations.


R8. Name four different shortcuts used in judging others. What effect does each have on perception?

D2. Given that perception affects behavior, do you think there is anything management can do to reduce employee perceptual distortion?  



R7. What role does perception play in (a) expectancy theory, (b) equity theory, & (c) reinforcement theory?
  1. Expectancy theory - the strength of a tendency to act in a certain manner depends on the strength of perceived outcome.
  2. Equity theory - perception determines equity or inequity between inputs & outcome.
  3. Reinforcement theory - this does not depend on perception, but on the actual reward for a certain behavior.
R8. Explain the motivation implications of expectancy theory for management practice.
  1. The key to expectancy theory is:
  1. The expectancy theory recognizes that there is no universal principle for explaining everyone's motivation.

D1. Would an individual with a high n Ach be a good candidate for a management position? Explain.
  1. Managers = the one in firm who directs deeds of others.
  2. High achievers typically don't make good managers.
D2. Most of us have to work for a living (i.e., hold down a paying job) & work is a central part of our lives. So why do managers have to worry so much about employee motivation issues?

Even though most of us have to work & therefore need a job, managers still have to worry about employee motivation because:  

D4. If you had to develop an incentive system for a small manufacturing company, which elements from which motivation theories would you use? Why? Would your choice of incentive systems be the same if it were a medical research lab? Explain.

Be sure that students explain the rationale for choosing the one(s) that they did.

The choice of incentive systems would probably differ for a medical research lab because of the different types of jobs involved.  



R1. How can someone be a manager but not a leader, a leader but not a manager, & both a manager & a leader?
  1. A manager =
  1. Leaders =
  1. So, a person could be a manager but not a leader, a leader but not a manager, & both a manager & a leader.

R4. Would a subordinate's personality characteristics affect the way he or she reacts to various leadership styles? Explain.  

R5. What similarities & differences do you see in these contingency models: Fiedler, House's path-goal, & Hersey-Blanchard?

The contingency models are similar in that each recognizes the key elements in a leadership situation: the leader & his or her style (traits), the subordinates & how the leader interacts with them (leader behavior), & the leadership situation (situational contingencies). Yet, they are different in that each measures & explains these various factors differently.


R9. What are the various sources of power that a leader might use? Do you think any one source of power is more effective than the others? Explain.

According to French & Raven, there are five sources of power that a leader might use:  

D1. What are some personal traits you think might be useful to a leader? Would these traits be more valuable in some situations than in others? Explain. D2. Which leadership theories, or parts of theories, appear to demonstrate reasonable predictive capability?

There appears to be predictive capability with:  



R4. Why is what is measured probably more crucial to the control process than how it is measured?

The criteria that are measured become the focus of attention. Whatever criteria are chosen, people will emphasize & attempt to look good on that criteria.


D5. "Every individual employee in the organization plays a role in controlling work activities." Do you agree, or do you think control is just something that managers are responsible for? Explain.

Control is something that every individual employee plays a role in, particularly in organizations where employees have been empowered. But even in organizations where employees haven't been empowered, these employees play a role in measuring, comparing, & correcting performance. Managers will be responsible for establishing the standards, approaches, & guidelines for measuring, comparing, & correcting action.



General Guideline in answering exam.:
  1. Allocate time evenly amongst questions based on marks allocation.
  2. Answer the question you know most first to build up confidence.
  3. Spend a minute or two to plan for the structure & argument of the answer.
  4. State your main argument in the first sentence of every paragraphs.
  5. Underline or highlight all the key terms or main points.
  6. A simple diagram or table may help explain complex theories.
  7. Make sure you have answered all parts of the questions. A brief summary at the end of your answer could be a good check.
  8. NEVER leaves a question unanswered, even you don't know the answers.

NEVER put your exam to luck. Be an internal Locus of Control student.